Regulations


United Nations



UN ECE R 107

The relevant portions of regulations pertaining to breakable emergency exits and
emergency exit devices for breaking toughened safety glass.

Technical requirements for emergency windows and hatches: -
7.6.8.2.2. Be made of readily-breakable safety glass. This latter provision precludes the possibility of using panes of laminated glass or of plastic material. A device shall be provided adjacent to each emergency window, readily available to persons inside the vehicle, to ensure that each window can be broken. The device for breaking the glass for the emergency windows at the rear of the vehicle shall be positioned either centrally above or below the emergency window or, alternatively, a device shall be positioned adjacent to each end of the window.

Safety glass
There are two types: - As defined in the UN ECE R43 Specification

Laminate glass:

  • NOT BREAKABLE - for windscreens – high penetration resistance, low strength, high weight.
  • Not allowed for breakable emergency exit windows.
  • Made from 2 or more layers of annield/thermally strengthened glass with a PVB plastic interlayer between the glass sheets. Generally used in forward facing windows due to its high penetration resistance. Will stop a brick travelling at 120 Km/h.

Toughened glass:

  • BREAKABLE- for high strength glazing applications – frangible, low penetration resistance, high strength and low weight.
  • Allowed, its use is exclusively specified for breakable emergency exit windows.
  • It is annield glass that has been thermally treated and quenched to a toughened condition.
  • Generally five times stronger for the same thickness and weight. Such glass is used for all other vehicle glazing options (sides, back and roof)
  • It is permanently marked as to its type and complying standard number during the treatment process. UNECE R43
  • It is easily identified and must be identified.
  • Toughened glass’s strength is such that without an appropriate device it is impossible to break by using bare hands or feet.
  • It requires a specialised purpose engineered device to readily and reliably break toughened glass.

 

Readily breakable safety glass
Readily: - Without delay or difficulty
Breakable: - Capable of breaking or being broken easily.

 

Note: - This requirement for the specific application of this glass type as a breakable emergency exit window is not defined in the UN ECE Regulations. It is understood to be standardised thermally toughened glass which when fractured, breaks into harmless cubes (height=width=length) of glass not capable of inflicting significant injury.
Note: - There is no performance standard that governs the “readily-breakable” requirement of toughened safety glass and it is therefore understood to be its lexicological meaning. See above.


Device for breaking the glass
A thing made for a particular purpose, especially a piece of mechanical equipment - a plan, method,
with a particular aim.


Note: - Portable hand tools such as hammers are not by definition a suitable device for a breakable emergency exit window.
Although its use is obvious, these devices are portable and are subject to manual dexterity and an individual’s physical abilities and behaviour in order to ensure successful use.

Hammers therefore do not satisfy the overall requirements as the required emergency exit device. Tools generally require training and experience to operate successfully. Its portability cannot ensure that it will be available in its place of fitment in the event of need.


Shall
Expressing a strong assertion or intention

Be provided
To make available for use.
It is the responsibility of the vehicle operator/owner or person responsible to maintain the vehicle in a compliant condition at all times.

Adjacent
In close proximity to, touching - On the glass itself is the most intimate proximity.

Each emergency window
As defined in UN ECE R107
A device, operating instructions, suitable advertising and an unobstructed emergency exit window or hatch, 700mm by 500mm in size and made from certified toughened glass are the basic requirements for a successful legally compliant emergency exit.

Readily available
Promptly; quickly; easily

Persons inside the vehicle
Natural persons inside the vehicle 12 years and older. Constitutionally accepted as a competent age capable of traveling unaccompanied by an adult and able to self-rescue in an emergency.

To ensure
To make sure, certain, or safe: guarantee.

Can be
There is no future tense of can, but will be able to, is used for saying that someone will have the ability to do something or that something will be possible in the future, especially after a long time.

Broken
Smashed, shattered, burst, fragmented, splintered, in bits and in pieces.

Marking of emergency exits: - UN ERCR R107

ISO 7010:2011 prescribes safety signs for the purposes of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation.
The shape and colour of each safety sign are according to ISO 3864-1 and the design of the graphical symbols is according to ISO 3864-3.

ISO 7010:2011 is applicable to all locations where safety issues related to people need to be addressed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, in general, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ with regard to certain points of ISO 7010:2011 and of the ISO 3864 series.

ISO 7010:2011 specifies the safety sign originals that may be scaled for reproduction and application purposes.


7.6.11. - Safety signs

7.6.11.1. - All safety signs shall comply with requirements contained in paragraph 6.5. of ISO standard 3864-1:2011.

7.6.11.2. - Each safety sign required by this Regulation shall be used to communicate only one safety message. The information provided shall be in the form of pictograms, however, words, letters and numbers may supplement the pictogram in combination on the same sign. It shall be located and orientated so as to be easily understood.
See below.

7.6.11.2.1. - Safety signs shall follow the principles shown in the example layouts below, i.e. a header section depicting the safety message, a second section containing instructional information and a third, optional, footer section for non-critical text. E/ECE/324/Rev.2/Add.106/Rev.6 E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2/Add.106/Rev.6 Annex 3 52

7.6.11.2.2. - Pictograms indicating required actions by the user shall show a person, or the relevant part of a person, operating the equipment or device.

7.6.11.2.3. - Pictograms indicating a required movement shall, where appropriate, show an arrow pointing in the direction of motion. Where a rotational movement is required, a curved arrow shall be used.

7.6.11.2.4. - Where devices are to be operated, panels removed or doors opened, the pictogram shall indicate the action in progress.

7.6.11.2.5. - The lower case letter(s) of supplementary words, single letters and numbers shall have a minimum height of 8 mm. Words shall not be in upper case letters only.

7.6.11.3. - All safety signs that are visible from the inside of the vehicle shall be of photo-luminescent material having luminance decay characteristics conforming, as a minimum, to sub-classification C in Table 2 of ISO Standard 17398:2004, when measured in accordance with paragraph 7.11. of that standard.


ISO 17398:2004 specifies requirements for a performance-related classification system for safety signs according to expected service environment, principal materials, photometric properties, means of illumination, fixing methods and surface. Performance criteria and test methods are specified in ISO 17398:2004 so that properties related to durability and expected service life can be characterized and specified at the time of the product's delivery to the purchaser.

7.6.11.4. - Safety signs shall not be located in positions where they may be obscured during operation of the vehicle. However, a curtain or blind may be positioned over an emergency window provided an additional safety sign indicates that the emergency window is located behind the curtain or blind.

7.6.11.5. - Each emergency exit, and any other exit that meets the prescriptions for an emergency exit, shall be marked by one of the relevant pictograms described in Table 3 of ISO Standard 7010:2011; pictograms shall be legible from both the inside and the outside of the vehicle.

7.6.11.6. - Safety signs shall be positioned adjacent to, or surround, or be on, all internal and external emergency controls and device(s) for breaking emergency window(s).

7.6.11.7. - No part of a safety sign shall obscure any misuse protection that may be present, e.g. a cover.

7.6.11.8. - The language in which any textual safety sign intended to comply with paragraphs 7.6.11.1. to 7.6.11.7. above are to be inscribed shall be determined by the approving authority bearing in mind the country / countries in which the applicant intends to market the vehicle in liaison if necessary with the competent authorities of the country / countries concerned. If the authority of the country / countries where the vehicle is to be registered has the language changed, this change shall imply no new type approval process.


Agreement

Concerning the Adoption of Uniform Technical Prescriptions for Wheeled Vehicles, Equipment
and Parts which can be Fitted and/or be Used on Wheeled vehicles and the Conditions for
Reciprocal Recognition of Approvals Granted on the Basis of these Prescriptions*

(Revision 2, including the amendments which entered into force on 16 October 1995)

Addendum 106: Regulation No. 107 Revision 6

Incorporating all valid text up to:
The 06 series of amendments of the Regulation - Date of entry into force: 10 June 2014

Uniform provisions concerning the approval of category M2 or
M3 vehicles with regard to their general construction






UNITED NATIONS

2.9.

"Emergency window" means a window, not necessarily glazed, intended for use as an exit by passengers in an emergency only.


2.11.

"Escape hatch" means an opening in the roof or the floor intended for use as an emergency exit by passengers in an emergency only.


2.12.

"Emergency exit" means an emergency door, emergency window or escape hatch.

7.5.4.

Fire extinguishers and first-aid equipment


7.5.4.3.

Fire extinguishers and first aid kits may be secured against theft or vandalism (e.g. in an internal locker or behind breakable glass), provided that the locations of these items are clearly marked and means are provided for persons to extract them easily in an emergency


7.6.1.4.

The minimum number of emergency exits shall be such that the total number of exits in a separate compartment is as follows:


Number of passengers and crew to be accommodated in each compartment or deck
Minimum total number of exits
1 - 8 2
9 - 16 3
17 - 30 4
31 - 45 5
46 - 60 6
61 - 75 7
76 - 90 8
91 - 110 9
111 - 130 10
>130 11

The number of exits for each separate deck (in the case of a double-deck vehicle) and each separate compartment shall be determined separately. Toilet compartments or galleys are not considered to be separate compartments for the purposes of defining the number of emergency exits. Escape hatches can only count as one of the above-mentioned number of emergency exits.

7.6.1.11.

Vehicles of Classes II, III and B shall be fitted with escape hatches, additional to the emergency doors and windows. In the case of double-deck vehicles, these hatches shall be fitted in the upper deck roof only. The minimum number of hatches shall be:

Number of passengers (in the upper deck in the case of double-deck vehicles)
Minimum total number of hatches
Not exceeding 30 1
Exceeding 30 2

Except as provided in paragraph 7.6.1.12., hatches may also be fitted in the case of Classes I and A vehicles. There shall not be any escape hatches fitted in the roof of a trolleybus.


7.6.3

Minimum dimensions of exits


7.6.3.1.

Vehicles of Class I, II or III shall meet the following requirements:


7.6.3.1.1.

Service doors shall have an aperture creating an access in accordance with the requirements shown in paragraph 7.7.1. of this annex.

7.6.3.1.2.

Emergency doors shall have an aperture with a minimum height of 1,450 mm and a minimum width of 600 mm.

7.6.3.1.3.

Emergency windows shall have a minimum area of 400,000 mm2. It shall be possible to inscribe in this area a rectangle measuring 500 mm x 700 mm.

7.6.3.1.4.

In the case of an emergency window situated in the rear face of the vehicle, either it shall meet the requirements shown in paragraph 7.6.3.1.3. above, or it shall be possible to inscribe in the aperture of this emergency window a rectangle 350 mm high and 1,550 mm wide, the corners of which may be rounded to a radius of curvature not exceeding 250 mm.

7.6.3.1.5.

Escape hatches shall have an aperture with a minimum area of 450,000 mm². It shall be possible to inscribe in this area a rectangle measuring 600 mm x 700 mm.

7.6.8.

Technical requirements for emergency windows.

7.6.8.2.2.

Be made of readily-breakable safety glass. This latter provision precludes the possibility of using panes of laminated glass or of plastic material. A device shall be provided adjacent to each emergency window, readily available to persons inside the vehicle, to ensure that each window can be broken. The device for breaking the glass for the emergency windows at the rear of the vehicle shall be positioned either centrally above or below the emergency window or, alternatively, a device shall be positioned adjacent to each end of the window.

7.6.9.

Technical requirements for escape hatches.

7.6.9.2.

Roof escape hatches shall be ejectable, hinged or made of readily-breakable safety `glass. Floor hatches shall be either hinged or ejectable and shall be fitted with an audible warning device to warn the driver when it is not securely closed.

7.6.9.5.

Escape hatches shall be capable of being easily opened or removed from the inside and from the outside. However, this requirement shall not be construed as precluding the possibility of locking the escape hatch for the purpose of securing the vehicle when unattended, provided that the escape hatch can always be opened or removed from the inside by the use of the normal opening or removal mechanism. In the case of a readily-breakable hatch, a device shall be provided adjacent to the hatch, readily available to persons inside the vehicle, to ensure that the hatch can be broken.




Austraila




Vehicle Standard (Australian Design Rule 44/02 –Specific Purpose Vehicle Requirements) 2006

44.9.4.2.

Emergency windows

44.9.4.2.1.3.

be made of readily-breakable safety glass. In this case, a securely-attached means of breaking the glass shall be provided in close proximity to the emergency window on the inside of the vehicle.




USA




49 CFR 571.217 - Standard No. 217; Bus emergency exits and window retention and release.

(a)

Emergency exit windows - Low-force application.

(1)

Location: Within the low-force access regions shown in Figures 1 and 3 for an emergency exit window.

(2)

Type of motion: Rotary or straight.

(3)

Magnitude: Not more than 89 newtons.

(b)

Emergency exit windows - High-force application..

(1)

Location: Within the high-force access regions shown in Figures 2 and 3 for an emergency exit window.

(2)

Type of motion: Straight and perpendicular to the undisturbed exit surface.

(3)

Magnitude: Not more than 178 newtons.